Thymosin α-1 is a major component of Thymosin Fraction 5 and is responsible for
restoring immune function, particularly cell mediated immune function. Recent
studies showed that the Thymosin Alpha-1 molecule increased major
histocompatibility complex (MHC) class-1 and Toll-like receptor expression as well as
cytokine production, suggesting its immunoregulatory role.
The drug is in Phase III trials for the treatment of hepatitis C and in Phase II trials for
hepatitis B. Additional possible indications are malignant melanoma, hepatocellular
carcinoma, drug-resistant tuberculosis, and Di George’s syndrome as well as any
chronic cancer or viral disease. Some physicians are using thymosin for chronic
fatigue and Lyme disease as well.
TA 1 is thought to modulate the immune system by augmenting T-cell function. TA1
may affect thymocytes by stimulating their differentiation or by converting them to
active T cells. TA1 is rapidly absorbed, achieving peak serum concentrations within
two hours. Blood levels return to baseline within 24 hours, and the serum half-life is
approximately 2 hours.
Content & Potency: 1 x 5mL at 3000 mcg/mL ready-to-inject subcutaneous.
Suggested dosage: Inject .15mL subcutaneously once daily until vial is empty (1 month
supply) or inject 1.6mg 2 x 1 week.
Thymosin Alpha 1: Past clinical experience and future promise
Cynthia Tuthill, 1 Israel Rios, 2 and Randy McBeath3
1Scientific Affairs, SciClone Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Foster City, California, USA.
2Medical Affairs, SciClone Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Foster City, California, USA.
3Marketing, SciClone Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Foster City, California, USA Address
for correspondence: Cynthia Tuthill, Scientific Affairs, SciClone Pharamaceuticals,
Inc., 950 Tower Lane, Foster City, CA 94404, USA. email@example.com
Abstract: Thymosin alpha 1, originally isolated as the compound responsible for
reconstitution of immune function in thymectomized animal models, has enjoyed a
wide-ranging clinical development program over the past decades, extending across
multiple companies, indications, countries, and continents. This paper provides an
overview of this complex picture. The extensive clinical studies began with small
studies conducted with an impure mixture of peptides under the aegis of
physician-sponsored INDs submitted to the US FDA, in subjects with primary
immune deficiency such as DiGeorge syndrome. Subsequent studies ranged all the
way to large phase-3 trials conducted with synthetically produced thymosin alpha 1
and hundreds of patients, in many countries including the United States, Italy, and
Thymosin Alpha 1: Biological activities, applications, and engineering
Juan Li a, Chun Hui Liu a, Feng Shan Wanga
An Institute of Biochemical and Biotechnological Drug, School of Pharmaceutical
Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China b National Glycoengineering
Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China
Abstract: Thymosin alpha 1 (T1), a 28-amino acid peptide, was first described and
characterized from calf thymuses in 1977. This peptide can enhance T-cell, dendritic
cell (DC) and antibody responses, modulate cytokines and chemokines production
and block steroid-induced apoptosis of thymocytes. Due to its pleiotropic biological
activities, T1 has gained increasing interest in recent years and has been used for
the treatment of various diseases in the clinic. Accordingly, there is an increasing need
for the production of this peptide. So far, T1 used in the clinic is synthesized using solid
phase peptide synthesis. Here, we summarize the genetic engineering methods to
produce T1 using prokaryotic or eukaryotic expression systems. The effectiveness of
these biological products in increasing the secretion of cytokines and in promoting
Thymosin is a hormone secreted from the thymus. Its primary function is to stimulate
the production of T cells, which are an important part of the immune system.
Thymosin also assists in the development of B cells to plasma cells to produce
antibodies. The predominant form of Thymosin. Thymosin Beta 4, is a member of a
highly conserved family of actin monomer-sequestering proteins. In addition to its
role as a major actin-sequestering molecule, Thymosin Beta 4 has a role in tissue
repair. Tβ4 has been found to play an important role in protection,
regeneration, and remodeling of injured or damaged tissues. The gene for Tβ4 has
also been found to be one of the first to be unregulated after injuries. Thymosin Beta
4 is currently being trialed as a potential therapy for HIV, AIDS, and Influenza.
Thymosin Beta 4 is most often prescribed for acute injury, surgical repair and for old
athletes. It has most recently been shown to help regrow hair in addition to PRP.
Content & Potency: 1 x 5ml at 3000mcg/ml ready-to-inject
Suggested dosage: Inject 0.25ml daily for 20 days
Abstract: A cDNA clone encoding human thymosin-beta 4 was isolated from a
cDNA library prepared from peripheral blood leukocytes of a patient with acute
lymphocytic leukemia. This clone contained the entire coding sequence of 43
amino acid residues of thymosin-beta 4 and had an initiation codon and two
termination codons. The amino acid and nucleotide sequences in the coding region
were well conserved between rat and human. Nine of 132 nucleotides were
different in the coding sequences (93% homology), but the deduced amino acid
sequences were identical. No signal peptide was found in the deduced protein
sequence. Human thymosin-beta 4 mRNA, approximately 830 nucleotides in
length, was about 30 nucleotides larger than rat thymosin-beta 4 mRNA.
Expression of the human thymosin-beta 4 gene in various primary myeloid and
lymphoid malignant cells and in a few human hemopoietic cell lines was studied.
Northern blot analyses of different neoplastic B lymphocytes revealed that steady
state levels of thymosin-beta 4 mRNA varied as a function of differentiation stage.
Thymosin-beta 4 mRNA levels were decreased in myeloma cells as are class II
human leukocyte antigen, Fc receptor, and complement receptor, suggesting a
relationship between thymosin-beta 4 and the immune response. Thymosin-beta 4
mRNA was more highly expressed in mature granulocytes than in immature blastic
cells. Treatment of THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line, with recombinant
human interferon-lambda reduced the levels of thymosin-beta 4 mRNA. Its level
decreased after differentiation of THP-1 cells into Ia+ macrophages, but increased
after the differentiation of HL-60 cells into Ia- macrophages. The pattern of
thymosin-beta 4 gene expression suggests that it may play a fundamental role in
the host defense mechanism
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