Table Of Peptides

Peptide are proteins found in the body that govern physiological processes.  At this time point, there are many peptides being used within this new frontier of medicine. Peptides  are an emerging modern medicine that will revolutionize safe and natural health and healing for your body. The medical-scientific community has been researching these physiological peptides for decades, as they are integral to human physiology. For instance the best known peptide within clinical practice is insulin. Peptides serve a broad range of benefits across the entirety of physiology. Peptides are plentiful in their functions, including the production of enzymes to help your body break down foreign substances,  enhance a broad immune function and hormones  controlling everything from growth, healing neuroprotective and enhancing ect. Without peptides, life would not be possible.

The following is a list of links to these powerful Healing medicines:







Pentadecapeptide BPC 157, composed of 15 amino acids, is a partial sequence of
body protection compound (BPC) that is discovered in and isolated from human
gastric juice. Experimentally it has been demonstrated to accelerate the healing of
many different wounds, including tendon-to-bone healing and superior healing of
damaged ligaments.

In addition, BPC 157 seems to protect organs and to prevent ulcers of the stomach.
BPC-157 acts systemically in the digestive tract to combat leaky gut, IBS,
gastro-intestinal cramps, and Crohn’s disease.

This peptide is also shown to decrease pain in damaged areas. Those who suffer
from discomfort due to muscle sprains, tears and damage may benet from treatment
with this peptide. It can also help aid skin burns to heal at a faster rate and increase
blood ow to damaged tissues.


Content & Potency: 1x 5ml at a concentration of 2000mcg/ml : ready to inject

Suggested dosage: 0.15ml (15 units) injected subcutaneously every day for 3 days
Oral option: 30 capsules at 500mcg – Take one capsule per day for 30 days total


The Promoting effect of Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on tendon healing involves
tendon outgrowth, cell survival, and cell migration Chung-Hsun Chang,
Wen-Chung Tsai2 Miao-Sui Lin, Ya-Hui Hsu, and Jong-Hwei Su Pang
Many growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth
factor-(TGF-), and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have been used to
improve the healing of torn tendon in the lab (2, 31). However, the short duration of
these easily digested growth factors hampers their clinical usage. Gastric
pentadecapeptide BPC 157 is a partial sequence of human gastric protein BPC,
which has been discovered in and isolated from gastric juice (5). It is highly stable
and resistant to hydrolysis or enzyme digestion, even in the gastric juice. Besides,
it is easily dissolved in water and needs no carrier for its application. Experimentally
it was demonstrated to enhance the healing of different wounds, such asgastric
ulcer (19, 32), skin (4, 15), cornea (13), muscle (28), colon-colon anastomosis (22),
colocutaneous stula (11), and segmental bone defect (21). It was also found to
accelerate the healing of transected rat Achilles tendon (12, 29) and medial
collateral ligament of knee (8). Currently it is in clinical trial for treating inammatory
bowel disease.



Cerebrolysin (synonym FPE 1070) is a synthetic nootropic drug which consists of
low-molecular peptides and possesses neuroprotective and neurotrophic repair
properties. The active fragment of cerebrolysin is made of proteins with very low
molecular masses that do not exceed 10.000 daltons. This means they can penetrate
the blood-brain (or blood-SCF) barrier and reach neurons directly, making the drug
able to show organo-specific combined effects towards brain.

Cerebrolysin has been proven to have neurotrophic action similar to nerve growth
factors, which cause peripheral and central neuronal stimulation. It improves
efficiency within the brain’s aerobic metabolic processes and improves intracellular
peptide synthesis. The neuroprotective properties of this nootropic agent help to
shield neurons from lactocidosis, to prevent formation of free radicals and to


Content & Potency: 215.2mg/mL x 10mL x 4 vials : ready-to-inject subcutaneously
Suggested dosage: Inject 1ml daily for 5 days out of 7 (4 week course)
Oral option: 40 capsules at 215mcg – Take one capsule per day for 40 days (Ask for


Cerebrolysin in Alzheimer’s disease: a randomized, double-blind,
placebo-controlled trial with a neurotrophic agent

M. Panisset, S. Gauthier, H. Moessler, M. Windisch
Summary: Cerebrolysin (Cere) is a compound with neurotrophic activity. It has
been shown to be effective in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in earlier
trials. In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled,
parallel-group study, patients were injected intravenously with placebo or 30mL
Cere five days per week for four weeks. Effects on cognition and global function
were evaluated with the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale – Cognitive
Subscale (ADAS-Cog) and the Clinicians Interview based Impression of Change
with Caregiver Input scale (CIBIC+) 4, 12, 24 weeks after the beginning of the
injections. 192 patients were enrolled, 95 were randomized to placebo, and 97 to
Cere. At baseline, there was a significant difference between groups for age, age of
onset of dementia, and the number of patients with hallucinations. At week 12 there
was a significant difference on the CIBIC + (p=0.033) in favor of Cere. The number
of CIBIC+ responders (score < 4), was significantly higher (p=0.007), with 68 (76%)
in the Cere group and 51 (57%) in the placebo group. Trends were noted in the
Disability Assessment in Dementia scale and the Cornell Depression Scale.
Adverse events were recorded in 73% of placebo and 64% of Cere patients. Most
common adverse events were headaches, dizziness, weight loss and anxiety.
Conclusions: Cere treatment was well tolerated and resulted in significant
improvements in the global score two months after the end of active treatment.

CJC 1295

Growth Hormone Releasing


CJC 1295 has been shown to increase growth hormone as well as IGF-I secretion
and it has been able to do so in very large amounts. CJC 1295 stimulates growth
hormone secretion and will keep a steady increase of HGH and IGF-1 with no
increase in prolactin, leading to fat loss, and increased protein synthesis thereby
promoting growth.

CJC 1295 is a tetrasubstituted 29-amino acid peptide hormone, primarily functioning
as a growth CJChormone1295 releasing is a tetra substituted hormon(GHRH)30-aminalogoacid. peptide hormone,
primarily functioning as a growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) analog. with
time and the body produces anti-bodies to Sermorelin. bioconjugate with serum
albumin, thus increasing its half-life and potential therapeutic window. It
accomplishes this by using protecting groups around the amino acids of GHRH
typically susceptibledesigndo toprenzymaticvmdegradationiction. thus increasing the
half-life. Consequently CJC 1295-DAC is designed to provide a GHRH-like
stimulation around the clock. A potential drawback when using a Various
experiments have been conducted to test the pharmacokinetics of CJC 1295-DAC in
vivo and the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism has reported
dose-dependent increases in mean plasma GH concentrations by 2-10 fold for more
than 6 days and increased IGF-1 concentrations 1.5-3 fold for 9-11 days a er a single
injection. Mean half-life was shown to be 5.8-8.1 days,also a er multiple doses mean
IGF-1 levels remained above baseline for up to 28 days. No serious adverse
reactions were reported in any group.


Content & Potency: 1 x 2ml at 2000mcg/ml : ready-to- inject subcutaneously

Suggested dosage: 0.10ml per day 5 days out of 7 (NON-DAC) before bed, on an
empty stomach (1 month supply). Some will do multiday dosing of 0.05ml.
***We suggest using the CJC 1295 in combination with Ipamorelin as it provides a
synergistic e ect, generating ve times the bene ts of using the CJC 1295 or
Ipamorelin alone. e combination allows for maximized release of GH because the
CJC 1295 and Ipamorelin have di erent mechanisms of action and work on di erent
receptors (GHRH-R & Ghrelin-R).




DSIP is a well-known neuromodulator and natural somnogenic nonapeptide with
many other physiologic functions. It is typically found in the brain and easily passes
the blood-brain barrier. It is mainly prescribed for the treatment of pain condition,
alcohol and opioid withdrawal, CRH and stress related symptoms, low testosterone
(via stimulation of LH), and even sometimes as an antioxidant and anti-oncogenic

It has been discovered and heavily studied for over 40 years, yet, the mechanism of
action is still complex and not well organized. The results of studies of DSIP and its
analogues over a period of 30 years since its discovery enable one to state with
confidence that DSIP is a unique member of the family of peptide neuromodulators. It
exhibits a pronounced stress protective action and decreases stress-induced
metabolic and functional disorders in human and animal organisms exposed to a
variety of stresses. Some of the effects of the peptide are accomplished through the
modulating action on central regulatory processes, owing to the systemic antioxidant
action, the modulating influence on the activity of GABAergic, glutamatergic, and
other neuronal systems. It also works on the expression of early response genes in
brain structures, and on the activity of biosynthetic and proteolytic processes.


Content & Potency: 1 x 3ml at 1000mcg/ml: ready-to-inject subcutaneously
Suggested dosage: DSIP has traditionally been dosed as an IV infusion, however, it can
be given subcutaneously as well. Traditional doses have been 100mcg.
Often prescribed for: Pain, to help improve sleep, and to stimulate testosterone levels
via LH release.


In several species DSIP at low doses has been shown to promote sleep. Although its
physiological role remains to be clarified, DSIP illustrates several concepts applicable to
other brain peptides. These include the bell-shaped dose-response curve, central effects
after peripheral administration, a delayed and prolonged time course, and some
penetration of the blood-brain barrier in essentially intact form. Concepts applicable to
one neuropeptide, therefore, appear to be applicable to others. In this article Abba Kastin
and colleagues review the known effects of DSIP and argue that more work needs to be
carried out before it can be labelled functionally.




Thymosin α-1 is a major component of Thymosin Fraction 5 and is responsible for
restoring immune function, particularly cell mediated immune function. Recent
studies showed that the Thymosin Alpha-1 molecule increased major
histocompatibility complex (MHC) class-1 and Toll-like receptor expression as well as
cytokine production, suggesting its immunoregulatory role.

The drug is in Phase III trials for the treatment of hepatitis C and in Phase II trials for
hepatitis B. Additional possible indications are malignant melanoma, hepatocellular
carcinoma, drug-resistant tuberculosis, and Di George’s syndrome as well as any
chronic cancer or viral disease. Some physicians are using thymosin for chronic
fatigue and Lyme disease as well.

TA 1 is thought to modulate the immune system by augmenting T-cell function. TA1
may affect thymocytes by stimulating their differentiation or by converting them to
active T cells. TA1 is rapidly absorbed, achieving peak serum concentrations within
two hours. Blood levels return to baseline within 24 hours, and the serum half-life is
approximately 2 hours.


Content & Potency: 1 x 5mL at 3000 mcg/mL ready-to-inject subcutaneous.
Suggested dosage: Inject .15mL subcutaneously once daily until vial is empty (1 month
supply) or inject 1.6mg 2 x 1 week.


Thymosin Alpha 1: Past clinical experience and future promise
Cynthia Tuthill, 1 Israel Rios, 2 and Randy McBeath3
1Scientific Affairs, SciClone Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Foster City, California, USA.
2Medical Affairs, SciClone Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Foster City, California, USA.
3Marketing, SciClone Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Foster City, California, USA Address
for correspondence: Cynthia Tuthill, Scientific Affairs, SciClone Pharamaceuticals,
Inc., 950 Tower Lane, Foster City, CA 94404, USA.
Abstract: Thymosin alpha 1, originally isolated as the compound responsible for
reconstitution of immune function in thymectomized animal models, has enjoyed a
wide-ranging clinical development program over the past decades, extending across
multiple companies, indications, countries, and continents. This paper provides an
overview of this complex picture. The extensive clinical studies began with small
studies conducted with an impure mixture of peptides under the awgis of
physician-sponsored INDs submitted to the US FDA, in subjects with primary
immune deficiency such as DiGeorge syndrome. Subsequent studies ranged all the
way to large phase-3 trials conducted with synthetically produced thymosin alpha 1
and hundreds of patients, in many countries including the Untied States, Italy, and
Thymosin Alpha 1: Biological activities, applications and engineering

Juan Li a, Chun Hui Liu a, Feng Shan Wanga

A Institute of Biochemical and Biotechnological Drug, School of Pharmaceutical
Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China b National Glycoengineering
Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China
Abstract: Thymosin alpha 1 (T1), a 28-amino acid peptide, was first described and
characterized from calf thymuses in 1977. This peptide can enhance T-cell, dendritic
cell (DC) and antibody responses, modulate cytokines and chemokines production
and block steroid-induced apoptosis of thymo-cytes. Due to its pleiotropic biological
activities, T1 has gained increasing interest in recent years and has been used for
the treatment of various diseases in clinic. Accordingly, there is an increasing need
for the production of this peptide. So far, T1 used in clinic is synthe-sized using solid
phase peptide synthesis. Here, we summarize the genetic engineering methods to
produce T1 using prokaryotic or eukaryotic expression systems. The effectiveness of
these biological products in increasing the secretion of cytokines and in promoting




Thymosin is a hormone secreted from the thymus. Its primary function is to stimulate
the production of T cells, which are an important part of the immune system.
Thymosin also assists in the development of B cells to plasma cells to produce
antibodies. The predominant form of Thymosin. Thymosin Beta 4, is a member of a
highly conserved family of actin monomer-sequestering proteins. In addition to its
role as a major actin-sequestering molecule, Thymosin Beta 4 has a role in tissue
repair. Tβ4 has been found to play an important play an important role in protection,
regeneration and remodeling of injured or damaged tissues. The gene for Tβ4 has
also been found to be one of the first to be unregulated after injuries. Thymosin Beta
4 is currently being trialed as a potential therapy for HIV, AIDS, and Influenza.
Thymosin Beta 4 is most often prescribed for acute injury, surgical repair and for old
athletes. It has most recently been shown to help regrow hair in addition to PRP.


Content & Potency: 1 x 5ml at 3000mcg/ml ready-to-inject
Suggested dosage: Inject 0.25ml daily for 20 days


Abstract: A cDNA clone encoding human thymosin-beta 4 was isolated from a
cDNA library prepared from peripheral blood leukocytes of a patient with acute
lymphocytic leukemia. This clone contained the entire coding sequence of 43
amino acid residues of thymosin-beta 4 and had an initiation codon and two
termination codons. The amino acid and nucleotide sequences in the coding region
were well conserved between rat and human. Nine of 132 nucleotides were
different in the coding sequences (93% homology), but the deduced amino acid
sequences were identical. No signal peptide was found in the deduced protein
sequence. Human thymosin-beta 4 mRNA, approximately 830 nucleotides in
length, was about 30 nucleotides larger than rat thymosin-beta 4 mRNA.
Expression of the human thymosin-beta 4 gene in various primary myeloid and
lymphoid malignant cells and in a few human hemopoietic cell lines was studied.
Northern blot analyses of different neoplastic B lymphocytes revealed that steady
state levels of thymosin-beta 4 mRNA varid as a function of differentiation stage.
Thymosin-beta 4 mRNA levels were decreased in myeloma cells as are class II
human leukocyte antigen, Fc receptor, and complement receptor, suggesting a
relationship between thymosin-beta 4 and the immune response. Thymosin-beta 4
mRNA was more highly expressed in mature granulocytes than in immature blastic
cells. Treatment of THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line, with recombinant
human interferon-lambda reduced the levels of thymosin-beta 4 mRNA. Its level
decreased after differentiation of THP-1 cells into Ia+ macrophages, but increased
after differentiation of HL-60 cells into Ia- macrophages. The pattern of
thymosin-beta 4 gene expression suggests that it may play a fundamentalrole in
the host defense mechanism




LL-37 Is an anti-microbial peptide which belongs to the cathelicidin family of
AMPs(anti-microbial peptides). LL-37, like cathelicidins, are stored in neutrophil
granules as inactive precursors and are released as mature peptides when
neutrophils are stimulated. LL-37 is expressed in various cells and tissues such as
circulating neutrophils and myeloid bone marrow cells, epithelial cells of the skin, and
is also expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as in the epididymis and lungs.
Moreover, production of LL-37 in macrophages is stimulated by vitamin D released
by sunlight through the skin. LL-37 plays an important role in the first line of defense
against infection and systemic invasion of pathogens at sites of inflammation and
wound. It is cytotoxic to both bacterial and normal eukaryotic cells and is significantly
resistant to proteolytic degradation in solution. LL-37 shows a broad spectrum of
antimicrobial activity against bacteria, enveloped viruses, and fungi. It has also
demonstrated success in helping promote wound healing and it may play a negative
role in atopic dermatitis and apsoriasis.


Content & Potency: 200mg capsules provided in quantities of 90
Suggested dosage: Varies with indication and patient


Membrane Core-Specific Antimicrobial Action of Cathelicidin LL-37 Peptide
Switches Between Pore and Nanofibre Formation


Membrane-disrupting antimicrobial peptides provide broad-spectrum defence
against localized bacterial invasion in a range of hosts including humans. The most
generally held consensus is that targeting to pathogens is based on interactions
with the head groups of membrane lipids. Here we show that the action of LL-37, a
human antimicrobial peptide switches the mode of action based on the structure of
the alkyl chains, and not the head groups of the membrane forming lipids. We
demonstrate that LL-37 exhibits two distinct interaction pathways: pore formation in
bilayers of unsaturated phospholipids and membrane modulation with saturated
phospholipids. Uniquely, the membrane modulation yields helical-rich fibrous
peptide-lipid superstructures. Our results point at alternative design strategies for
peptide antimicrobials.




It is well known that ACTH/MSH-like peptides (melanocortins) exert pleiotropic
non-hormonal actions among their larger activities. Melanocortins aect learning
processes and exploratory behavior, regeneration and development, nociceptive and
inflammatory processes, accelerate nerve regeneration and improve neuromuscular
performance. Together these classes of peptides control many behaviors such as
regulating attention, processes of learning, and memory formation as a result of their
pronounced effect on CNS functions. Heptapeptide SEMAX (MEHFPGP) is the
analogue of ACTH (4-10) that has prolonged neurotropic activity and thus is a good
candidate for medical therapy. Currently this peptide is successfully used in
treatment of patients with pathologies related to brain circulation dysfunction and with
different intellectual-amnestic problems of the CNS. Doctors have prescribed it for
many conditions like anxiety, memory improvement, ischemic events, stroke, nerve
regeneration, ADHD, opioid withdrawal, and even chronic diseases such as ALS,
Parkinson’s, and Alzheimer’s. Some doctors use it as a preventative measure to
protect against chronic disease and to acutely help improve memory and learning
processes. It also has a marked antithrombotic and fibrinolytic effect and a gastric
protective effect. It has also been suggested in literature that due to its effect on
carboxypeptidase it can also increase physical performance and adaptation
capacities in exposure to high intensity exercise. At its higher doses, .5mg/kg can
even be analgesic.


Content & Potency: 1 x 5mL Nasal applicator at 7.5mg/ml
Suggested dosage: Two squirts of 0.10ml ( 750mcg) nasally every day
Often prescribed for: Anti-Thromobosis, ADHD/Learning, Gastric protection, Physical
exertion improvedment pain, Metal toxicities.




MGF is a split variant of IGF-1 but its sequence differs from the systemic IGF-1
produced by the liver. IGF-I is spliced towards MGF which initiates hypertrophy and
repair of local muscle damage. MGF is expressed by mechanically overloaded
muscle and is involved in tissue repair and adaptation. It is expressed as a pulse
following muscle damage and is involved in the activation of muscle satellite (stem)
cells. These donate nuclei to the muscle fibers that are required for repair and for the
hypertrophy process, which may have similar regulatory mechanisms (Goldspink, G.,
2005 p22). MGF is essential for repair and therefore growth of new cells, similar to
IGF-1. If MGF is not PEGylated, the half-life is several minutes therefore PEGylated
MGF must be considered during the compounding process to ensure an appropriate
half-life, thereby increasing duration of action.


Content & Potency: 1 x 3mL at 2000mcg/ml ready-to-inject subcutaneous.
Suggested dosage: 0.10ml daily for 5 days out of 7 (1 month supply).


A.Philippou1, E. Papageorgiou1, G. Bogdanis2, A. Halapas1, A. Sourla3, m.
Maridaki, N. Pissimissis Source: Department of Experimental Physiology, Medical
School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens.

Abstract: Different insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) isoforms, namely IGF-1Eb
and IGF-1Ec (MGF),have been proposed to have various functions in muscle repair
and growth. To gain insight into the potentially differential actions of IGF-1 isoforms
in the regulation of muscle regeneration, we assessed the time course of their
expressions at both mRNA and protein levels after exercise-induced muscle
damage in humans. In addition, we characterized mature IGF-1 and synthetic MGF
E peptide signalling in C2C12 myoblast-like cells in vitro. Ten healthy male
volunteers were subjected to exercise-induced muscle damage and biopsy
samples were taken from the exercised muscles before and 6 h, 2,5 and 16 days
post exercise. Muscle damage was documented by specific functional and
biochemical responses post exercise. PCR-based analyses of muscle biopsy
samples revealed a rapid and transient up-regulation of MGF mRNA expression
which was followed by a prolonged increase of IGF-1Ea and IGF-1Eb mRNA
expression (p<0.05). Patterns similar to those for mRNA expression were detected
for MGF and IGF-1Ea expression at the protein level. The action of synthetic MGF
E peptide differed from that of mature IGF1 since its proliferative effect on C2C12
myoblast-like cells was not blocked by an anti-IGF-1 receptor neutralizing antibody
and it did not phosphorylate Akt. Therefore, we conclude that the differential
expression profile of IGF-1 isoforms in vivo and the possible IGF-1R- independent
MGF E peptide signalling in skeletal muscle-like cells in vitro support the notion that
tissue-specific mRNA expression of MGF isoform produces mature IGF-1 and MGF
E peptides which possibly act as distinct mitogens in skeletal muscle regeneration.


9604 + HA


AOD9604 is the a GH fragment which comprised the last 16 amino acids of the larger
growth hormone molecule. Although originally studies for fat loss, further studies
have transitioned it for regenerative medicine. In combination with hyaluronic acid
(HA), it is now being used to help regenerate hyaline cartilage and is showing strong
efficacy in the treatment of osteoarthritis. The combination acts to enhance the
differentiation of adipose mesenchymal stem cells into bone, promote proteoglycan
and collagen production in chondrocytes, and promote differentiation of myoblasts
into C2C12 cells; all of which are essential for bone, cartilage, and muscle repair.
These studies indicate that it has stronger therapeutic benefits compared to Bone
Marrow Aspirate Concentrate (BMAC) and Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) therapy,
which have also been emerging as candidates for osteoarthritis medications.

AOD9604 + HA has proceeded to human WOMAC trials which allow the combination
to be investigated for on an osteoarthritis index which considers pain, stiness, and


Content & Potency: 5ml vials – 3000mcg/ml AOD (HMW HA)
Suggested dosage: .5ml-.75mls injected intra-articularly once a week for 4 weeks
and then once/month for 5 months




Tesamorelin is a growth hormone releasing hormone analog that has been shown to
increase IGF-1 levels in men by an average of 181 micrograms/liter. It binds and
stimulates GHRH receptors with similar potency as endogenous GHRH. It has a host
of other benefits including nootropic effects and reducing triglycerides.

Tesamorelin has subsequently been shown to decrease carotid intima media
thickness (cIMT), Visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in a
recent study. It has not been shown to significantly affect other pituitary hormones
and their respective mechanisms in the body. Additionally, it has been shown to
improve cognitive function for healthy older adults and also for people with mild


Content & Potency: 24 1mg lyophilized vials, 10ml vial of sterile water for
Suggested dosage: 1 mg injected subcutaneously before bed about 90 minutes
after last food intake


The Procognitive and Synaptogenic Effects of Angiotensin IV–Derived
Peptides Are Dependent on Activation of the Hepatocyte Growth Factor/c-Met

A subset of angiotensin IV (AngIV)–related molecules are known to possess
procognitive/antidementia properties and have been considered as templates for
potential therapeutics. However, this potential has not been realized because of
two factors: 1) a lack of blood-brain barrier–penetrant analogs, and 2) the absence
of a validated mechanism of action. The pharmacokinetic barrier has recently been
overcome with the synthesis of the orally active, blood-brain barrier–permeable
analog N-hexanoic-tyrosine-isoleucine-(6) aminohexanoic amide (dihexa).
Therefore, the goal of this study was to elucidate the mechanism that underlies
dihexa’s procognitive activity. Here, we demonstrate that dihexa binds with high
affinity to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and both dihexa and its parent
compound Norleucine 1-AngIV (Nle1-AngIV) induce c-Met phosphorylation in the
presence of subthreshold concentrations of HGF and augment HGF-dependent cell
scattering. Further, dihexa and Nle1-AngIV induce hippocampal spinogenesis and
synaptogenesis similar to HGF itself. These actions were inhibited by an HGF
antagonist and a short hairpin RNA directed at c-Met. Most importantly, the
procognitive/antidementia capacity of orally delivered dihexa was blocked by an
HGF antagonist delivered intracerebroventricularly as measured using the Morris
water maze task of spatial learning.


The Insulin-like Growth Factor is one of the endocrine hormones that is produced in the liver. The release of this hormone increases in the presence of Human Growth Hormone. Numerous cells throughout the muscles of the human body are equipped with cell receptors that have a high affinity for Insulin-like Growth Factor. This makes this hormone one of the best growth hormones and a facilitator of general cell growth which it does by targeting different specific tissues and in more autocrine cell communication processes, it facilitates cell division.

  • It facilitates protein synthesis in the body.
  • It regulates the storage of fat and channels it to be used for the production of energy. This results in a noticeable fat loss.
  • Promotes positive effects on metabolism; increasing lean body mass and decreases fat
  • It increases the regenerative properties of the body’s nerve tissues.
  • Upregulates anti-oxidant benefit and ligament strength
  • It boosts hyperplasia in muscle cells, which leads to fuller muscle tissues.
  • Optimal IGF-1 and growth hormone levels are crucial to bone development during childhood and throughout adult life.

Why Should You Use IGF-1?

In simple terms, the weight gain that you will experience from the use of IGF-1 is not due to water weight. All your weight gain will be caused by actual muscle growth which is a long-term effect. Compared to steroids which are overly known for putting on water weight and often leading to adverse side effects, you will not get 10lbs from Insulin-like Growth Factors, but you will acquire solid muscle gain after every one or two weeks which will be composed of actual heavy muscle.

The most important feature of IGF-1 is its ability to cause hyperplasia in the human body. The body of a person who is on steroids goes through hypertrophy, this means that they will only be increasing the size of the existing cells in their muscles. On the other hand, IGF-1 leads to hyperplasia which purports the growth and development of new cells in the muscles. Generally, you will accomplish much more in terms of muscle density and size at a normal genetic level.

Variants of IGF-1

There are two groups of IGF variants. These are IGF-1 LR3 and DES IGF-1 (which can also be presented as IGF-1 DES). The half-life of IGF-1 is very short, and because of this, it is quickly destroyed by the body. This is the main reason why IGF-1 was modified to produce an amino acid analog IGF-1 LR3 which has a longer half-life. The other variant of IGF-1, DES IGF-1 is a truncated version of IGF-1 which is up to ten times more potent than IGF-1. Both of these IGF-1 variants are similar to IGF-1 but they have different modes of action. This feature allows them to function together in different and specific ways.


The half-life of IGF-1 LR3 is about 20 – 30 hours. It is more potent than the regular base IGF-1. Because it can be sustained in the body for more than a day, it efficiently binds to cell receptors in the muscle cells and activates cell communication which subsequently improves the growth rate of muscles all day long.

IGF-1 LR3 inhibits the movement of glucose into the body cells which facilitates fat burning and the use of fat in the body for the production of energy. Its long life of close to a day has made it a preferred variant by a majority of patients and physicians because site injections are never necessary. IGF-1 LR3 cycles the whole body and binds to the receptors on muscle cells then acts for about a day, so a daily administration of this dosage is strongly supported.


DES IGF-1 is a shorter version of the base IGF-1 chain. This variant of IGF-1 is five times more potent than the regular base IGF-1. It has a half-life of about twenty to thirty minutes which indicates that it is a very delicate chain. The administration of DES IGF-1 should only be done exactly where you want to experience muscle growth. DES IGF-1 has a higher ability to stimulate hyperplasia in the muscles than IGF-1 LR3. In conclusion, this variant works best when used for site injections and not overall muscle growth.

In addition to these functions, DES IGF-1 is known to bind to receptors, in cells, that have been deformed by lactic acid. Lactic acid is produced in elevated amounts during training and vigorous activities. This characteristic of DES IGF-1 allows it to attach to mutated receptors which signal tissue growth even during training activities. DES can be used more frequently and for a longer time than IGF-1 LR3.


When we check on facts, the growth hormone is actually a precursor to the IGF-1, but why choose IGF-1 over the Growth Hormones? Growth Hormones do not cause direct muscle growth but instead, they facilitate the growth of muscles by signaling the release of the IGF-1. Human Growth Hormone can prove to be very difficult to qualify for. In order to have it be prescribed to you by a physician, you have to be diagnosed with Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency Syndrome. You must take and fail a Growth Hormone Stimulation Test which then indicates that your body is not producing growth hormone in response to a stimulus. This makes IGF-1 and its variants a much more viable solution for an athlete, someone losing to drop body fat or even those looking to get back into shape.

Dosing and Injections


This variant of IGF-1 should be taken daily for 7 days in a week. It’s best to take it after a workout. You should dose it at about 20 mcg to 50 mcg. Since IGF-1 has a very short half-life, desensitization will rarely be noticed.


This variant of IGF-1 should be taken daily for 7 days in a week. You should dose it at about 20 mcg to 50 mcg. Desensitization occurs at around 40 days or approximately 4 weeks.


DES IGF-1 should be dosed multiple times in a day, most preferably, before you embark on your training activities. You should target specific sites and muscles with a dose of about 50 mcg to 150 mcg. Since DES IGF-1 has a very short half-life, desensitization can rarely be noticed. You should always ensure that you localize your target sites so that you aim at specific muscle groups. If you want to enhance your biceps, you should administer this injection right into your biceps.

Side Effects of IGF-1

It should be well noted that the continuous administration of IGF-1 in high doses has been confirmed to cause hypoglycemia, but in this case, it is not as severe as that caused by insulin. It is also stipulated but highly debated that IGF-1 can increase the size of a tumor in cancer patients. Even though this factor might be true in patients with existing cancer cases, everyone should be aware that IGF-1 does not cause cancer. In fact, the human body requires IGF-1 to regulate heart functions, brain cell stimulation and to improve the functioning of the nervous system.

People with low IGF-1 levels generally have a lower protein count and a smaller lean body mass. This can be very unhealthy. You should also know that whenever you have a headache, you don’t need a whole bottle of painkillers. Equally, whenever you are on this medication, you should make sure that you administer it in the correct way so that you can avoid some ignorant mistakes and adverse side effects.

Free IGF-1 Therapy Consultations
If you have additional questions about growth hormone therapy or if you would like to be tested for your levels of IGF-1, call 602-726-1242 to schedule your free consultation with one of our licensed physicians and transformyou today.

We serve patients in the Phoenix AZ area including Tempe, Chandler, Gilbert, Mesa, Scottsdale, Ahwatukee, Peoria, Glendale, Avondale, and Fountain Hills. All patients always work directly with one of our licensed physicians to ensure patient safety and confidentiality.

It is important to remember that any program or treatment we offer at transformyou carrying the phrase ‘Anti-Aging’ is not intended to stop or prevent one from aging. Rather, our services and products are designed to help individuals effectively manage and navigate the aging process, yielding the best possible levels of health and wellness.


Ipamorelin is one of the latest and greatest peptide in the growth factor family. Deemed one of the safest GHRP’s, Ipamorelin is a selective growth hormone (GH) Secretagogue and Ghrelin receptor agonist. Ipamorelin is a 3rd generation GHRP, regarded as the cleanest of the GHRP’s. Ipamorelin stands out due to its enhanced specificity. This peptide generates similar increases in growth hormone secretion, but without the appetite stimulation and increase in cortisol, acetylcholine, prolactin, and aldosterone seen with other peptides in its class. This peptide has been found to be very well-tolerated. The strength is comparable to GHRP-6 and GHRp-2.

Benefits of Ipamorelin:

  • Decreased body fat
  • Increased collagen production
  • Increased lean muscle mass
  • Improved sleep
  • Increased cellular repair and & Regeneration
  • Increased IGF-1
  • Increases bone mineral content
  • Counteracts glucocorticoid catabolic effects
  • Less appetite stimulation than GHRP-6
  • Less release of cortisol, prolactin and aldosterone

Ipamorelin has been shown to be both highly potent and very selective in vivo and vitro situations, and has also demonstrated good safety and tolerability in human clinical studies. Research has shown that Ipamorelin is growth hormone specific which means that the pituitary hormones such as cortisol are unaffected. Though it is turning out that Ipamorelin may be one of the best alternatives available to HGH therapy, as it not only promotes the extra production of the subjects own GH and, additionally, helps to stimulate the liver to produce greater amounts of IGF-1 in the process, but it’s also understood to not influence certain bodily processes to happen, unlike other secretagogues that have been shown to function in a similar capacity.

One very important point for patients participating in other secretagogue therapies is that it has been determined that it does not promote an increased production of the enzyme ghrelin. Keep in mind that the secretion of ghrelin is mainly just a means to stimulate hunger. However, benefits of Ipamorelin has been determined to not cause this increase due to its ability to control points of gastric, appetite, and growth motility.

Another very significant positive difference is that Benefits of Ipamorelin does not display a capacity to significantly boost levels of cortisol. Research has shown that Ipamorelin is growth hormone specific which means that the pituitary hormones are also unaffected. Patients on different types of secretagogue therapies have reported jitters, cold sweats or nervousness and this is due to those other therapy’s overall impact on cortisol levels. Because benefits of Ipamorelin does not affect the body in this way, patients are able to better benefit from just the positive aspects of GH therapy, while keeping unwanted side effects at bay.

PT 141

PT 141 has been shown to have a substantial effect on libido, generating sexual arousal in both men and women within minutes of administration.

Benefits of PT 141:

  • Results. More women reported moderate or high sexual desire following bremelanotide treatment vs. placebo.
  • Among women who attempted sexual intercourse within 24 hours after treatment, significantly more were satisfied with their level of sexual arousal following bremelanotide, compared with placebo.
  • Effects may be felt up to 12 hours from the time of administration and have been known to last for up to 3 days, diminishing each day.
  • PT- 141 has been shown to have significant results on male test patients, with what is described as “intense” and “frequent” erections lasting between 2-6 hours.
  • For women, sexual arousal has been experienced in a varied range of minutes to weeks
  • Bremelanotide PT 141 was developed from the peptide hormone Melanotan II
  • Effective in treating sexual dysfunction in men – impotence / erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation
  • Effective in treating sexual dysfunction in women – sexual arousal disorder
  • Does not act upon the vascular system
  • Increases sexual desire via the central nervous system

Additional Information:

Bremelanotide PT 141 was developed from Melanotan II, targeting its aphrodisiac effects. This peptide has been shown to have a substantial effect on libido, generating sexual arousal in both men and women within minutes of administration. It has been shown to be effective in treating erectile dysfunction, even in men who have not responded to other ED treatments, such as Viagra and Cialis and female sexual arousal and orgasmic disorders.

This peptide is also able to cross the blood-brain-barrier, bypassing the vascular system and acting at the level of the central nervous system. This property gives Pt 141 an advantage over traditional ED drugs, which can decrease blood pressure to dangerous levels.

Amlexanox / TTA

Amlexanox is an anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic compound which has traditionally be used to treat ulcers by reducing healing time and pain. It has multiple mechanisms of action such as inhibiting inflammation by inhibiting the release of histamine and leukotrienes. It has been shown to selectively inhibit TBK1 (TANK-binding kinase 1) and IKK-3 (Inflammatory Kinase), producing reversible weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity. It is through this mechanism that it has produced substantial results in reducing HbA1C levels and increasing insulin sensitivity. We combine Amlexanox with Tetradecylthioacetic Acid (also known—and more easily pronounced—as TTA). It is a fatty acid that does not get used for fuel by the body, but instead helps to regulate how much fat the body stores by influencing genes that control the metabolism. TTA can help individuals feel full more quickly while the fatty acid decreases overall hunger and burns fat. In addition to regulating fat metabolism, this fatty acid has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunity-enhancing properties.

Mechanism of Action:

Feedback loops of obesity

Loop 1: The first loop involves AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) and NF-KB (nuclear factor kappa B) pathways. In this loop, chronic stress triggered by obesity causes inflammation by activating the NF-KB pathway. The NF-KB pathway stimulates genes associated with inflammation and obesity including TBK1. When TBK1 is activated, it shuts down the enzyme AMPK, reducing the cell’s ability to burn calories, and resulting in fat storage. In this way, obesity reduces energy expenditure. AMPK is one of the master regulators of energy expenditure and also senses changes in energy levels during fasting and increases expenditure by instructing cells to burn fat as an energy source. However, when fasting activates AMPK, it initiates the TBK1 enzyme, which ultimately inhibits AMPK’s role in burning fat. This feedback loop blocks energy expenditure both through inflammation and fasting. Energy expenditure was restored when TBK1 was deleted from fat cells.

Loop 2: While NKFB induces TBK1, TBK1 turns around and inhibits NFKB. The activation of TBK1 normally reduces inflammation, without completely eliminating it, causing it to be low grade. Without TBK1, inflammation increases.

Benefits of Amlexanox:

  • Can reduce Body Fat
  • Can improve glucose control
  • Can improve insulin resistance
  • Can improve/normalize HbA1C


Growing evidence points to an inflammatory link between obesity and type 2 diabetes. Obesity produces a state of low-grade inflammation, particularly in the liver and in adipose cells. Using next generation RNA-sequencing analysis, researchers have compared gene expression in fat cells. They have found that inhibition of IKK-3 and TBK1 improves glucose control in certain patients with type 2 diabetes. The inflammatory kinases IKK-3 and TBK1 are elevated in obesity; their inhibition in obese mice reduced weight, insulin resistance, fatty liver and inflammation.

Amlexanox (an inhibitor of IKK 3and TBK1) was studied in a proof-of-concept randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 42 obese patients with type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Treatment of patients with Amlexanox produced a statistically significant reduction in Hemoglobin A1c and fructosamine. Interestingly, in a group drug responders (people who reacted positively) also exhibited improvements in insulin sensitivity and hepatic steatosis (fatty liver). This subgroup was characterized by a distinct inflammatory gene expression signature from biopsied subcutaneous fat at the beginning of the study. They also exhibited a unique pattern of gene expression changes in response to Amlexanox, consistent with increased energy expenditure. Together, this data suggests that dual-specificity inhibitors of IKK-3 and TBK1 may be effective therapies for metabolic disease in certain groups of patients.

Study: TKB1 at the crossroads of inflammation and energy homeostasis in adipose tissue

Study: Inhibition of IKK3 and TBK1 improves glucose control in subset of patients with type 2 diabetes


One of the reasons that diets are so ineffective in producing weight loss for some people is that their bodies adjust to the reduced calories by also reducing their metabolism, so that they are ‘defending’ their body weight. Amlexanox seems to tweak the metabolic response to excessive calorie storage and rev up the metabolism again to improve energy expenditure. This medication does not work for everyone, some people will respond, others will not.


Epithalon (also known as Epitalon or Epithalone) is the synthetic version of the polypeptide Epithalamin which is naturally produced in the pineal gland.

It was discovered by the Russian scientist Professor Vladimir Khavinson, who then conducted epitalon-related research for the next 35 years in both animal and human clinical trials.

Epitalon’s primary role is to increase the natural production of telomerase, a natural enzyme that helps cells reproduce telomeres, which are the protective parts of our DNA. This allows the replication of our DNA so the body can grow new cells and rejuvenate old ones. Younger people produce a relatively large amount of telomerase and longer telomeres. The longer the telomere strands are, the better cell health and replication they provide. However, as people age, the production of telomerase falls and consequently cell replication and health decline. This is the main reason that people age.

It also plays a role in regulating metabolism, increasing the sensitivity of hypothalamus to its natural hormonal influences, normalizing the function of the anterior pituitary and regulating the levels of gonadotropins and melatonin in the body.

Benefits of Epitalon:

As a result of Epitalon’s effect on telomerase production, the benefits are unique and far-reaching and include:

  • An increase of human lifespan by lengthening telomeres in human cells
  • Promotion of deeper sleep
  • Delay and prevention of age-related diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and dementia
  • Acts as an anti-oxidant by reducing lipid oxidation and ROS (Reactive oxygen species) along with normalizing T cell function.
  • Improvement of skin health and appearance
  • Healing of injured and deteriorating muscle cells
  • Restores and normalizes melatonin levels in older people who have lost some pineal function due to aging
  • Can increases resistance to emotional stress


Anisimov, V.N., Khavinson, V.K. (2009). The use of peptide bioregulators for cancer prevention: results of 35 years of research experience and perspectives. Voprosy Onkologii [Russia]. 55(3):291-304.
Bartsch, C. & Bartsch, H. (2000). Pineal gland and cancer – An epigenetic approach to the control of malignancy: Evaluation of the role of melatonin. Madame Curie Bioscience Database [Internet]. Austin (TX): Landes Bioscience; 2000-.
Christensen, K., Thinggaarda, M., McGue, M., Rexbye, H., Hjelmborg, J.B., Aviv, A., … Vaupel, J.W. (2009). Perceived age as a clinically useful biomarker of aging: cohort study. Bio Medical Journal (online). 339:b5262.
Dilman, V. M., Dean, W., Fowkes, S. W., & Dilman, V. M. (1992). The neuroendocrine theory of aging and degenerative disease.Pensacola, FL: Center for Bio-Gerontology.
Khavinson., V.K. (2002). Peptides and aging. Neuroendocrinology Letters [ special issue]. p. 144.
Khavinson, V.K., Bondarev, E., Butyugov, A.A. (2003). Epithalon peptide induces telomerase activity and telomere elongation in human somatic cells. Bulleting of Experimental Builogy and Medicine. 135(6): 590-592.
Khavinson, V.K., & Morozov, V. (2003). Peptides of pineal gland and thymus prolong human life. Neuroendocrinology Letters. 24:233-240.
Korkushko, O.V., Khavinson, V.K., Shatilo, V.B., Magdich, L.V. (2004). Effect of peptide preparation epithalamin on circadian rhythm on epiphyseal melatonin-producing function in elderly people. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine [Russia]. 137(4): 127-146.
Labunets., I.F., Butenko, G.M., Magdich, L.V., Korkushko, O.V., Khavinson, V.K., Shatilo, V.B. (2004). Effect of epithalamin on circadian relationship between the endocrine function of the thymus and melatonin-producing function of the pineal gland in elderly people. Bulletin of Experimental and Biological Medicine [Russia]. 137(5):617-619.
Terry, D.F., Nolan, V.G., Andersen, S.L., Perls, T.T., Cawthon, R. (2008). Association of longer telomeres with better health in centenarians. The Journals of Gerontology Series A, Biological and Medical Sciences. 63(8): 809-812.

Numerous studies have shown the importance of telomerase production and telomere rejuvenation in fighting the symptoms of aging. As Epitalon has been shown to increase the production of telomerase which in turn strengthens and lengthens telomeres, this means that Epitalon can play a vital role in decreasing the aging process and thus extend human longevity.


GHK-Cu is a naturally occurring copper complex that was first identified in human plasma, but has recently been found in multiple locations such as saliva and urine. Copper peptides are small, naturally occurring protein fragments that have high affinity for copper ions, which are critical to normal body function. GHK-Cu has a variety of roles in the human body including, promoting activation of wound healing, attracting immune cells, having anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, stimulating collagen and glycosaminoglycan synthesis in skin fibroblasts, and promoting blood vessel growth.

Evidence has shown that it acts as a feedback signal that is generated after tissue injury. It seems to act as a potent protector of tissue and it is an anti-inflammatory agent that controls the oxidative damage that occurs after tissue injury. Further, it then plays a big role in signaling tissue remodeling which removes damaged/scarred tissue and generates new, healthy tissue.

These positive effects decline with age because the concentration of GHK-Cu in the body decreases with age. Thus, there is an increase in inflammation, cancerous activity, and tissue destruction. In plasma, the level of GHK-Cu is about 200 ng/ml at age 20. By the age of 60, the level drops to 80 ng/ml.

Up-to-date, it is established that GHK-Cu is able to:

  • Tighten loose skin and reverse thinning of aged skin
  • Repair protective skin barrier proteins
  • Improve skin firmness, elasticity, and clarity
  • Reduce fine lines, depth of wrinkles, and improve structure of aged skin
  • Smooth rough skin
  • Reduce photodamage, mottled hyperpigmentation, skin spots and lesions
  • Improve overall skin appearance
  • Stimulate wound healing
  • Protect skin cells from UV radiation
  • Reduce inflammation and free radical damage
  • Increase hair growth and thickness, enlarge hair follicle size


Kisspeptin is produced in the hypothalamus, is an important hormone that starts the release of several other hormones. It stimulates the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) which then causes lutenizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) to be released from the pituitary gland. These hormones have a direct role in the production of testosterone and estradiol.

It has a non-hormonal role too and was originally named metastin after its ability to prevent the spread of cancer (metastasis). Recent data has also described its action in the control of metabolism. Recent data suggests that kisspeptin may play a role in food intake, glucose homeostasis and mediating the effect of energy balance on reproductive function. Thus, kisspeptin may have a direct role in regulating energy balance and may also be a direct regulator of metabolism.

Improper kisspeptin function or low kisspeptin levels can cause problems. Specifically, inadequate function of this hormone can cause male and female infertility. In females it can prevent menstruation which leads to other hormones dysfunction and absence of ovulation. Sometimes, just one injection of kisspeptin can trigger ovulation, which can allow for artificial insemination and in vitro fertilization using the woman’s eggs.

A study from 2017 showed a significant decrease in serum kisspeptin for men with a low sperm count as well as infertile men. The serum kisspeptin levels were significantly higher in fertile men as compared to infertile males. The study provides a link between the kisspeptin levels and male reproductive fertility status. It can be considered a contributory factor in the control of testosterone, FSH and LH levels in males.

Having high levels of kisspeptin is not related to any conditions or symptoms, although preliminary research indicates that high kisspeptin levels in childhood can lead to early puberty, but this has not yet been proven.

Mechanism of action

Kisspeptins would appear to act directly on the nerve endings of GnRH neurons to control GnRH release, pulsatility, or discharge. Other studies show that Kisspeptins increase GnRH secretion as well as the level of mRNA. Kisspeptin is released in conjunction with two other hormones: dynorphin and neurokinin B, also called the KNDy neurons. The KNDy neurons are a fundamental element in regulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulses. These two hormones are not understood well, but early research indicates they may have a role in causing the release of kisspeptin.


Gonadotropin injections (LH and FSH) constitute the classical treatment for infertility in females. Kisspeptin injections, which stimulate secretion of endogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) inducing increased secretion of LH and FSH from the pituitary gland, could be a new treatment for medically assisted reproduction in women and increasing fertility and natural production of testosterone in men. This more physiological stimulation of might reduce the risk of overstimulation of the ovaries often associated with excessive injections of LH and FSH. Kisspeptin has now been safely and successfully used in both men and women, it is possible that in the future the manipulation of kisspeptin signaling may be used in the treatment of reproductive disorders.


George JT, Veldhuis JD, Roseweir AK, Newton CL, Faccenda E, Millar RP, Anderson RA: Kisspeptin-10 is a potent stimulator of LH and increases pulse frequency in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;96:E1228-E1236
Dhillo WS, Chaudhri OB, Patterson M, Thompson EL, Murphy KG, Badman MK, McGowan BM, Amber V, Patel S, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR: Kisspeptin-54 stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis in human males. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90:6609-6615
Evaluation of serum kisspeptin role in male infertility. Ashraf T Abd Elmouttaleb, Doaa M Abd-Elatif, Eman M Rabie, Nashwa M Gouda, Osama A Hashem: Evaluation of serum kisspeptin role in male infertility. Intn J of Multidisciplinary research and dev Vol. 4, Issue 11 (2017) PAGES: 116-121
Reproduction. 2014 Feb 3;147(3):R53-63. doi: 10.1530/REP-13-0509. Print 2014 Mar. Kisspeptin and energy balance in reproduction. De Bond JA1, Smith JT


MK-677 (also known as ibutamoren), promotes the secretion of the growth hormone (GH) and increases insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Ibutamoren increases growth hormone levels by mimicking the action of the hormone ghrelin and binding to one of the ghrelin receptors (GHSR) in the brain. Activated GHSR stimulates growth hormone release from the brain. Clinical studies describe only the effects ibutamoren has on appetite and as expected, like ghrelin, ibutamoren increases it. GHSR is found in brain regions that control appetite, pleasure, mood, biological rhythms, memory, and cognition. Therefore, we can expect that ibutamoren may also affect these functions. It increases growth hormone levels with little or no increase in other hormones, such as cortisol. Cortisol suppresses the immune system, reduces wound healing, and impairs learning and memory, and it’s usually not good to have this hormone elevated.

Benefits of MK-677:
Helps Build Muscles: Ibutamoren is frequently used as an anabolic substance, to increase lean body mass. It is orally active and can be taken once a day. MK-677 stimulates Growth Hormone and IGF-1 which each factor in significantly to maintaining lean body mass. Growth Hormone is believed by many to stimulate an increase in muscle size and strength and the ability of MK-677 to increase Growth Hormone production make it a popular choice.

One study that studied 60-year-olds indicated that injections to stimulate Growth Hormones led to increased strength in thigh muscles. When it comes to MK-677 stimulating muscle growth, its results will vary by person depending on their exercise regimen and if they have any health conditions.

In another study of 24 obese men, a two-month treatment with ibutamoren increased lean mass, and transiently increased basal metabolic rate (BMR)

Reduces Muscle Wasting: MK-677 has shown in recent studies to alleviate muscle wasting that can be caused by a decline in protein within an individual’s diet. In one study a group of healthy young adults were tested to determine if MK-677 could reverse protein catabolism and the results proved to be quite positive. As a result, MK-677 is theorized to be possibly being an effective treatment for individuals who suffer from catabolic conditions.

Increases Bone Density: Several studies have indicated that long-term use of MK-677 can have tremendous results to increase bone mineral density. This finding can benefit several populations including obese individuals, older adults, and women with menopause. These distinct populations can have detrimental health problems due to low bone mineral density and MK-677 has proven to be an effective treatment for many of them.

In 24 healthy obese male volunteers, ibutamoren increased bone turnover.

In 187 elderly adults (65 years or older), ibutamoren increased bone building, as measured by osteocalcin, a marker of bone turnover in multiple studies.

In one study with 292 post-menopausal women, ibutamoren increased bone mineral density, which helps increase bone strength and prevent osteoporosis.

The groups of people who serve to benefit by MK-677’s ability to increase bone density must research the possibility of any long-term side effects since increases in bone density typically take more than a year’s use.

Improves Sleep:

Since Growth Hormone is known to help improve sleep quality, it is commonly thought that Ibutamoren Mesylate can assist with sleep quality since it stimulates production in Growth Hormone.

A study showed that in both younger and elderly subjects, ibutamoren improved sleep quality and REM (rapid eye movement) sleep duration.

Apart from scientific studies, there have been many reports of subjective improvements in sleep quality.

Combats Aging and May Increase Longevity:

As seen with other hormones in the body, Growth Hormone naturally begins a steady decline once a certain age is hit. Individuals who are aging can benefit from taking MK 677 since Growth Hormone and IGF-1 will be increased in the body among its consumption. Aging individuals who take MK 677 can improve their overall hormone profiles as they give their declining GH levels (Growth Hormone levels) a boost.

In a study with 65 elderly men and women, daily ibutamoren increased GH and IGF-1 levels to those of healthy young adults without serious adverse effects.

In another study with 24 obese males, ibutamoren rejuvenated the growth hormone profile.

May Have Nootropic Effects:

Since MK-677 shares a lot of similar qualities to Ghrelin and binds to its receptors, it is believed that MK 677 can have the same effects on the brain that Ghrelin has.

However, there are no studies that confirm whether or not MK 677 has direct nootropic effects on the brain. Scientists do have hope though that a couple of noticeable indirect methods may explain how MK 677 can be of assistance to cognitive function. Looking back at the previous section, one method that shows promise is Ibutamoren’s ability to improve sleep quality by increasing REM sleep. Obtaining the proper amount of sleep each night is extremely important when trying to achieve adequate cognitive function. MK-677 can improve cognitive function by assisting individuals with the ability to get a good night’s rest. The ability of MK-677 to stimulate IGF-1 production can also indirectly improve cognitive function based on IGF-1’s role in cognitive function. One study indicated that IGF-1 positively affected participants’ ability to perform well on cognitive tests. We know that sleep is essential for good cognitive function.

Beneficial in Treating Growth Hormone Deficiency:

Ibutamoren can increase growth hormone, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 levels in children with growth hormone deficiency. Furthermore, these effects are achieved without changing the concentrations of prolactin, glucose, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyrotropin, cortisol or insulin.

In severely GH-deficient men, ibutamoren increased IGF-1 and growth hormone, with no significant changes in cortisol, PRL, and thyroid hormone levels. However, insulin and glucose were increased.

Side effects:

Overall, MK 677 has not produced very many side effects for its users to be concerned about, but certain populations may have certain side effects to look out for. Individuals who are vulnerable to insulin sensitivity or who have Diabetes may be at risk when taking MK-677. Symptoms associated with these conditions could possibly be exacerbated by the use of MK 677. As with any other compound, correct dosing and usage of MK-677 is the key. In studies that looked at how MK-677 increases muscle mass, the dosage was key. Side effects of MK-677 are usually the result of a handful of two things: improper dosage and extended use.

Reported side effects of MK-677 are typically the result of unnaturally high levels of growth hormone in the body from taking too much too often which are:

Increased appetite
Joint pain if you have previous medical conditions or elevated hormone levels
Insulin resistance
Possible increase in prolactin levels, which can be controlled
But when dosed properly, the side effects of MK-677 are minimal to none compared to the results you get from taking it properly. The results from using MK-677 are evident in just a couple of days and with proper dosing and stacking, include:


it has shown to provide numerous health benefits for individuals with certain conditions. Those with low bone density, have trouble sleeping at night, and with catabolic conditions can all benefit greatly from the use of MK 677. The ability of the MK 677 secretagogue to effectively secrete Growth Hormone and IGF-1 proves to be a useful tool for many different populations. MK 677 has shown through numerous studies to benefit the elderly, those with obesity, have problems sleeping, have low bone density, and others. For these populations, MK 677 can be used as a helpful tool to combat issues that can be caused in large part due to a lack of Growth Hormone and IGF-1.


J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Feb;83(2):320-5. MK-677, an orally active growth hormone secretagogue, reverses diet-induced catabolism. Murphy MG1, Plunkett LM, Gertz BJ, He W, Wittreich J, Polvino WM, Clemmons DR
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996 Dec;81(12):4249-57. Stimulation of the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor I axis by daily oral administration of a GH secretogogue (MK-677) in healthy elderly subjects. Chapman IM1, Bach MA, Van Cauter E, Farmer M, Krupa D, Taylor AM, Schilling LM, Cole KY, Skiles EH, Pezzoli SS, Hartman ML, Veldhuis JD, Gormley GJ, Thorner MO.
MK-677, an Orally Active Growth Hormone Secretagogue, Reverses Diet-Induced Catabolism. M. G. Murphy L. M. Plunkett B. J. Gertz W. He J. Wittreich W. M. PolvinoD. R. Clemmons. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Volume 83, Issue 2, 1 February 1998, Pages 320–325
Neuroendocrinology. 1997 Oct;66(4):278-86. Prolonged oral treatment with MK-677, a novel growth hormone secretagogue, improves sleep quality in man. Copinschi G1, Leproult R, Van Onderbergen A, Caufriez A, Cole KY, Schilling LM, Mendel CM, De Lepeleire I, Bolognese JA, Van Cauter E.
Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Jun; 154(3): 557–568. Regulation of muscle mass by growth hormone and IGF-I. C P Velloso
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Feb;83(2):362-9. Two-month treatment of obese subjects with the oral growth hormone (GH) secretagogue MK-677 increases GH secretion, fat-free mass, and energy expenditure. Svensson J1, Lönn L, Jansson JO, Murphy G, Wyss D, Krupa D, Cerchio K, Polvino W, Gertz B, Boseaus I, Sjöström L, Bengtsson BA
J Bone Miner Res. 1998 Jul;13(7):1158-66. Treatment with the oral growth hormone secretagogue MK-677 increases markers of bone formation and bone resorption in obese young males. Svensson J1, Ohlsson C, Jansson JO, Murphy G, Wyss D, Krupa D, Cerchio K, Polvino W, Gertz B, Baylink D, Mohan S, Bengtsson BA
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Mar;86(3):1116-25. Effect of alendronate and MK-677 (a growth hormone secretagogue), individually and in combination, on markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Murphy MG1, Weiss S, McClung M, Schnitzer T, Cerchio K, Connor J, Krupa D, Gertz BJ; MK-677/Alendronate Study Group
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Feb;84(2):471-5. Insulin-like growth factor-I and cognitive function in healthy older men. Aleman A1, Verhaar HJ, De Haan EH, De Vries WR, Samson MM, Drent ML, Van der Veen EA, Koppeschaar HP
Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2001 Jul;70(1):91-8. Effects of oral administration of ibutamoren mesylate, a nonpeptide growth hormone secretagogue, on the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor I axis in growth hormone-deficient children. Codner E1, Cassorla F, Tiulpakov AN, Mericq MV, Avila A, Pescovitz OH, Svensson J, Cerchio K, Krupa D, Gertz BJ, Murphy G.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Oct;82(10):3455-63. Oral administration of growth hormone (GH) releasing peptide-mimetic MK-677 stimulates the GH/insulin-like growth factor-I axis in selected GH-deficient adults. Chapman IM1, Pescovitz OH, Murphy G, Treep T, Cerchio KA, Krupa D, Gertz B, Polvino WJ, Skiles EH, Pezzoli SS, Thorner MO

Melanotan II

Melanotan II (MT2) is a stimulating peptide which induces skin tanning. Melanocyte Stimulating Hormones (MSH) are a class of peptide hormones produced in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland that stimulate pigment cells (melanocytes) in the skin and hair to produce and release melanin which leads to darker skin and hair. Melanotan II increases melanin production via stimulation of skin pigment cells called melanocytes.

What is Melanin?

Melanin is the skin pigment produced that protects our skin from sun’s UV radiation and damage. It could be considered our body’s own natural sunscreen. Low levels of melanin mean that the skin is highly susceptible to DNA damage with excess sun exposure. This lack of melanin and its protection against UV radiation means that those individuals with fair skin have a propensity to burn and risk more DNA damage. It also means that a lot of time is invested their ability to develop a tan safely without burning.

Receiving an adequate supply of vitamin D from the sun without being at risk of developing melanoma is somewhat of a balancing act. Studies have already discovered that staying out of the sun to prevent melanoma can cause vitamin D deficiency.

How to stimulate melanin production with tanning peptides

To get a safe tan, we need to stimulate the melanocyte stimulating hormone responsible for increasing melanin production. Scientists discovered the use of a “tanning peptide” when investigating possible ways to treat skin cancer. They hypothesized that by inducing the body’s natural pigmentary system through the process of melanogenesis, a protective tan could be produced before UV exposure, thereby reducing the potential for skin damage. With just a little UV exposure, the release of a- Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone stimulates a natural increase in the production of melanin from the melanocytes in the skin. Use of the tanning peptide provides more a-MSH which results in more melanin being produced and greater tanning potential (skin pigmentation) regardless of your skin type.

Clinical trials have shown that use of Melanotan II may hold the potential to promote melanogenesis, with minimal side effects. The primary role of melanogenesis is to protect the hypodermis, which is the layer under the skin from the UV-B light that causes damage. It works by absorbing all of the UV-B light, which blocks its passage into the skin layer.

Benefits of a Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone:

The ability to achieve a darker tan with less exposure to UV radiation
Possible reduction in the risk of Melanoma (skin cancer)
A possible reduction in the incidence of sun-damaged skin
Fair skin individuals have the ability to develop a tan through the use of the MT2 peptide.
It can lead to reduction in body fat
No sunburn, No tan lines
No sunless tanning streaks or fake tan removal
It can increase libido
(During clinic trials for its use as a tanning agent, melanotan II was found to be a potent stimulator of male erections. It has also been shown to increase female sexual desire in patients with sexual arousal disorder).
Side effects of melanotan II

Short term side effects after administration include:

Facial flushing
Reduced appetite, nausea and vomiting
In males, spontaneous erections 1-5 hours after administration (priapism), associated with yawning and stretching complex
Long term, there is concern that melanotan II may increase the risk of:

Melanoma – a potentially serious form of skin cancer
Deepening of the color of moles, new moles and atypical melanocytic naevi
Melanonychia – brown to black discoloration of one or more nails
Suggested usage: daily for 1 – 2 weeks then one to two times weekly for maintenance.

SARMs LGD 4033

Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs) provide the benefits of traditional anabolic/androgenic steroids such as testosterone (including increased muscle mass, fat loss, and bone density) while having a lower tendency to produce the unwanted side effects of steroids (aromatization / increased DHT). By acting/stimulating on the androgen receptor, SARMs can provide a similar therapeutic outcome to androgen therapy without any increase in androgen levels. SARMs have the potential to take the place of the androgens, and therefore exert many of the same positive effects on muscle tissue as anabolic steroids like testosterone. SARM 4033 (Ligandrol) is administered orally and is not liver toxic like most oral steroids are. The anabolic effect has been measured to be roughly the same as testosterone. It has also been shown to produce dose-dependent increases in bone mineral density and mechanical strength in addition to being able to decrease body fat and increase lean body mass.

Benefits of SARMs:

Provides benefits of anabolic/androgenic steroids such as testosterone
Increased fat loss
Increased lean muscle mass
Increased bone density
Fewer side effects compared to steroids, including prostate and cardiovascular outcomes
Not liver toxic like other oral steroids
Anabolic effect noted to be similar to testosterone
Side Effects:

Some studies have shown that SARM LGD 4033 (Ligandrol) can heavily suppress and lower free testosterone levels while also suppressing and lowering sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels. However, the good news is that after taking LGD-4033 it will only take a very short time (1 to 3 weeks) for your testosterone levels to get back to normal. Getting back to normal doesn’t take much time because Ligandrol does not affect LH or FSH. There have also been no reported estrogenic system changes reported after taking LGD 4033.


J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013 Jan;68(1):87-95. doi: 10.1093/gerona/gls078. Epub 2012 Mar 28.

The safety, pharmacokinetics, and effects of LGD-4033, a novel nonsteroidal oral, selective androgen receptor modulator, in healthy young men.

Zinc Thymulin

Zinc Thymulin (ZT) is used to regenerate hair lost as a result of androgenic alopecia. Hair loss occurs in a large percentage of the adult human population and increases in prevalence with increasing age. Hair loss may occur in males and in females but is more prevalent in males. In the western population it is estimated that 50% of the male population have noticeable hair loss by 50 years of age. The most common form of hair loss in men is termed androgenetic alopecia (male pattern baldness). Most hair loss involves inactivation of hair follicles, that is, hair follicles cease to grow hair. Literature also suggests that the thinning of the fat scalp layer due to age can contribute to hair loss through inactivation of the stem cells which regulate hair growth. A deficiency of Zinc will also lead to hair loss.

Zinc and thymulin are two natural compounds involved in hair follicle growth and have been studied and found to promote hair growth. Combined into a spray solution, ZT can be applied to the scalp and treat hair loss, bald patches and as well as initiate the angen hair growth phase (the active growth phase of hair follicles during which the root of the hair is dividing rapidly).

Testing has shown to be safe and effective, with proven clinical results published in the peer reviewed medical journal Hair Therapy and Transplantation.

We know what zinc is, what is thymulin?

Thymulin is a nonapeptide hormone derived from the thymus gland. Early reports of thymus extract stimulating hair growth was discovered in 1986 and 2000. The activity of the hormone is reliant on the mineral Zinc, which is why it is referred to as Zinc Thymulin. ZT also induces differentiation of T-cells.

Benefits of ZT:

Can improve hair growth
Can improve quantity of hair
Can prevent hair loss
Can improve endogenous hair pigmentation
A variety of alopecia states can be treated
Both women and men can be treated
Treatment may be combined with known other hair restoration methods
Side Effects:

In the study “An Analysis of the Safety and Efficacy of Topical Zinc-Thymulin to treat Androgenetic Alopecia“ Zinc Thymulin demonstrated no adverse systemic effects or local side effects of redness or scalp irritation or deterioration of hair color, quality or quantity.


Topical applications of ZT demonstrated safety and established efficacy for initiating and maintaining anagen to treat male pattern baldness when applied for 6 months.


2017 Hair Therapy and Transplantation. Vickers ERAn Analysis of the Safety and Efficacy of Topical Zinc-Thymulin to treat Androgenetic Alopecia. 7:147
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